Human history in general and history of religion in particular is surrounded by the differences and conflicts. Christians are divided into Protestants, Adventists and Catholics; Jews are divided in Judaism, Hebrewism and Semitism, Hindus have their own divisions as well. During the rule of Hazrat Omer R.A. Muslims conquered a large area of the world and Islam spread far and wide. Complications began to appear, keeping in view of these complications Muslim scholars decided to compile Islamic jurisprudence in the light of Quran and Sunna to guide common Muslim and to prevent them from misguiding. In the period of Khalifa abu Mansoor Jafar the class of Muslim jurisprudence (Fuqaha) appeared, they keenly worked on Islamic legislations and became the founder of major schools of thought among Muslims.
Later on, in subcontinent under the rule of British government and influence of Hinduism uneducated Muslim were being misled, it was alarming situation for Muslim Ulema and scholars and to counter this situation some Islamic Madarssahs and institutes were established by Muslim scholars, however some differences were appeared among the disciples of these institutes. Hence they were divided into various groups by the name of their respective Madarssahs. The present paper aims to delineate the emergence of various Schools of thought among Muslim Umma and appearance of sectism and cultism among the Muslims of subcontinent. The descriptive and historical method of study is used in this paper.