MAARIF RESEARCH JOURNAL

ISSN 2415-2315 (Online), ISSN 2221-2663 (Print)

ABSTRACT Advertising creates, develops and manages the image of the organization and its products amongst the masses. Simultaneously, the employees also take pride in being a part of such a company who is being known, adored and respected. Intention of this research is to find the relation between Organization’s advertising and employee’s performance. A survey form is used to get data from 360 employees of different organization of Karachi, Pakistan which have advertisements on mainstream media for their product and services. Results depict that organization’s advertising have significant impact on employee’s performance. The sample population used from one location of country is a limitation of research and restricting the broader view of the existing findings.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT Right to a fair trial is recognized internationally as a fundamental human right and countries are bound to respect it. Therefore the war crime tribunals of former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and Rwanda (ICTR) fully accepted the fair trial right and with the mandate of United Nations, incorporated it in their statutes as a guarantee against the unlawful actions. While the domestic war crime tribunal of Bangladesh (ICTB) follows its own special procedures and rules, which is lacking the fair trial guarantees to ensure a free and fair trial. In terms of rights ensuring fair trial guarantees, procedure, statutes and working, there are huge differences found between the ICTB and the other two internationally recognized tribunals (ICTY & ICTR). The ICTY and ICTR appear more transparent and fair than the ICTB. The ICTB has repeatedly deviated from the recognized judicial norms and principal of fair trial. Moreover, non-compliance with the ICCPR, violations of the domestic laws of the country and the revealed Skype scandal makes the tribunal (ICTB) illegal.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT The major purpose of this analytical study was critically investigating the performance of literate female in the field of education. It was descriptive study based on participatory survey research. Quantitative approach was used for data collection and analysis. The number of institutions, enrollment of female students and female teachers, physical facilities curriculum and co curriculum activities have been taken as parameters. Three assumptions were formulated using non experimental sample survey. Questionnaire (demographic variable information Performa) was delivered to 450 females teachers out of 513 and 400 females returned it; belonging to 12 union councils of four districts ((Lahore, Kasur, Sheikhupura) of Punjab Province. (33 literate female teachers belonging to three union councils of each district, while 37 literate women were of Narowal) Data was analyzed by calculating percentage, mean score and standard deviation of each item.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT The world is currently passing through many global-challenges, which demand students to have global competency. This competency is correlated with the intellectual grooming of teachers, who are the last resort to develop aesthetic sense among the future generation. This research study inquires the global mindedness and global preparedness of teachers in Pakistan and its relation with their professional qualification & teaching experience. The population for current study consists of all the public and private school teachers currently teaching at secondary level in Sindh and Punjab, Pakistan. Purposive sampling was used to select the total number of ten schools. Through random sampling n=280 teachers were selected. Hett Global Minded scale was adopted as the major tool for collecting data. For ethical considerations, consent letter was signed by the research participants. Data was analyzed using graphs, tables and statistical calculations, wherever applicable. The results disclosed that the teachers are least global minded in terms of their experience and professional qualifications. Although their theoretical understanding is satisfactory; but the practicality is mislaid. Majority of the participants agreed to have an interaction with multi-cultural society and raise their voice against non-serious attitude of government towards the right of the people. Majority of the participants are willing to adapt values from other cultures, while large proportion of the participant belief that they are part of global society. Based on the results, recommendations are supplemented.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT The study was meant to tap the role and impact for interpersonal communication in agenda setting effects among viewers of cable channels on obtrusive and non-obtrusive issues by using mix method strategy. For content analysis, two elite cable channels; Express and Geo News were selected to check the coverage patterns of the media. By using random sampling techniques, the data was further delimited to news bulletins of 9.00 p.m. and talk shows of 10.00 p.m. for one year. 500 viewers based in Islamabad were asked to rank the most to least discussed issues of the country from a given list of seven issues. Energy crisis, corruption, law and order, were obtrusive issues while memo gate, democratic process, National Reconciliation Ordinance and Pak-US relations were unobtrusive issues. The results reveal that interpersonal communications do have a premier place for reinforcement and furthering the media agenda. The strong impact has been observed to reinforce the people in discussing the obtrusive issues irrespective of the coverage patterns of the media. The more discussed issue was energy crisis while it was fourth and sixth, in terms of coverage, on Geo and Express News respectively. Law and order was remained as second most discussed issue. Third most discussed issue was corruption among seven issues. Results show that all the three obtrusive issues were remained in top three among seven issues while democratic process in spite of maximum coverage remained at place fifth in terms of most discussed issues. Theory of agenda setting was applied to verify the assumptions of the study.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT Community participation in schools is necessary for quality of education because parents and the community can play a positive role in the improvement of quality of teaching. For this purpose, the Government of Pakistan and henceforth of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa ordered to form bodies such as Parents Teachers Councils (PTCs) in public sector schools for strengthening community participation in schools circa 1993. Chairmen who were elected by the parents of students headed these bodies. These Chairmen were responsible to keep a contact with the school and involve parents and communities there in. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of those Chairmen and their PTCs as to what extent they were participating and collaborating with public sector schools. Data were gathered through a questionnaire and analyzed by using Chi-square technique. It was found that in some cases Chairpersons were actively participating for improvement of schools, while in some other cases they were not successful in doing so. It is suggested that these Chairpersons should be encouraged in connecting schools and communities through public recognition and media.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT Pakistan has faced a very unstable political history. Time and again, military dictators have overthrown civilian governments and have derailed the democratic political setup in the country. A glimpse at the history shows that for more than three decades, Pakistan has been ruled under military dictatorship. Against this backdrop, there have been a very few democratic parties that have succeeded to complete their democratic tenures in the country. The Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) is one such party that has rendered its services to the political setup of Pakistan since the party’s inception in 1967. As a matter of fact, it was only after the General Elections of 2008 that a democratically-elected government of the Pakistan People’s Party successfully completed its five-year term for the first time in history of the country, which is a commendable achievement for any political party in Pakistan. In this paper, an overview and analysis of the contribution of the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) in the political set up of Pakistan is presented.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT The Middle East Peace Process (MEPP) between Israel and Palestine always remains one of the most vital strategic significance and complex dilemmas facing by international community. For more than the past sixty years, Israeli-Palestinian or Arab conflict has been giving rise to regional instability and wars. The enduring confrontation has resulted in at least five major wars and a number of minor controversies and the source of two major Palestinian intifadas (uprisings). Many concrete international and regional attempts have been made to achieve a ceasefire and eventual negotiations on a more permanent peace. However, despite the international involvements, the deadlock in peace process is still there, due to frequent clashes between two nations. The main purpose of this theoretical research paper is to provide historical political background of Israeli-Palestinian conflict and to identify the main obstacles which hinder the smooth functioning of MEPP. On the basis of reviewed literature, the paper is divided in three sections; first part focusing on the brief but comprehensive back ground of the research problem, the second part deals with role of western powers in the MEPP, while a summary of findings for the process of peace would be discusses in the last section of the study.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT: Syed Ahmed Shaheed's Movement of Mujahideen (Tehreek-e-Mujahideen) left immense impression on the outlook of political, social and literary landscape of the sub-continent. It also influences the poetry of Urdu. The poets who took part in the movement wrote many poems to support the movement and their poems are reckoned to be a crucial phase of Urdu "milli" poetry. The "milli" poetry of Urdu mainly revolves around highlighting the qualities and character of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him). The "milli" poetry is also known as "Na‘at" poetry and that has a significant value in Urdu literature. This paper highlights the couplets said in the excellenceــــــــــــ of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) created by the poets who took part in the Movement of Mujahideen.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT: Saiyyad Abul A'la Maodudi has not only been a great Islamic thinker and revivalist of South Asia in modern history, but he has been a versatile writer at his early age. He showed a great interest in historiography of contemporary Turkey and Hayderabad State in later Moghal and colonial India. Hayderabad and Turkey, being his own and his ancesters' birth place, he took more interest in writing books on both these regions. He produced 3 books alone on Hayderabad: Daolat-e-Asefiya aor Hukumat-e Bartaniya: Siyasi Ta'luqaat ki Tareekh par ek Nazar; Tareekh-e Dakkan; Dakkan ki Siyasi Tareekh; in the age of thirty years. Besides these prominent books, he wrote a marvellous article on Futuhaat-e-Asefi: Asef Jah Awwal ki ek Manzoom Sawaneh Umri, written by Abul Faez Ma'ni Dehlavi. This article was written by Maodudi to introduce a very rare historical text on the age and political struggle of Asef Jah, the founder of Hayderabad State, in third decade of the 18th century. This book, according to Maodudi, is a highly valuable source for the history of Hayderabad and its founder that still not considered and used by any historian of the region. This article is based on an effort to introduce and evaluate Maodudi's article first time as it is still not listed in any bibliography of Maodudi and not known to the scholars and writers interested in Maodudi's works and academic contribution.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT: The Crimean Peninsula, also known as Crimea, is an important region on the northern coast of the Black Sea. The Peninsula is located just south of the Ukrainian mainland and west of the Russian region of Kuban. It is surrounded by two seas, the Black Sea to the South and the smaller Sea of Azov to the East. From the period of Tsars, Russia was very keen to capture this Peninsula due to its geographical importance. In 1783 the Crimean Khanate, a state ruled by Crimean Tatars and generally subject to the Ottoman Empire, was conquered by the Russian Empire under Catharine-II. Since then, Crimea remained part of Russia within the Soviet Union until 1954 when it was handed over to Ukraine, also a Soviet Republic, by Stalin's successor Nikita Khurshchev, a Ukrainian. Since the Collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, there have been periodic political tussles over its status between Moscow and Kiev. With political ups and downs in the region now a days, sovereignty of the Peninsula is disputed between Russia and Ukraine. This paper highlights the history and historical disputes over the Crimean Peninsula.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT: The aim of all Prophets sent by Allah (SWT) was to convey His message and pursue His oneness among human beings. Different Prophets were sent to different nations and regions, and their messages were also remained confined to their inhabitants. However, the last Prophet of Allah (SWT) was sent to all mankind. The way Holy Prophet (Peach be upon him) preached the message of Allah and persuaded his oneness in every nook and corner of the world, in just 23 years, is a remarkable history. A short review of special mode of preaching of the Holy Prophet has been carried out in this article.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT: Hyderabad Deccan, a state located in the southern region, was one of the key states in the Subcontinent. Its significance emanated from its rich cultural heritage which gives Hyderabad Deccan a prominent place amongst all states of the subcontinent. Muslims ruled over this Hindu majority state for over seven hundred years since 14 AD. The downfall of the state began mutely back in ninteenth century with the arrival of English in the Subcontinent and was concluded with their departure. The poignant and unexpected demise of the largest and most self-reliant state was not only the fall of a piece of land rather a collapse of culture, tradition and language of a whole nation. One of the most important reason of this downfall was the aggression of India after the partition of the subcontinent. At the other far end of India, located a beautiful state of Kashmir in the picturesque valley of Himalayas. Here, unlike Hyderabad, Hindus ruled over Kashmir despite a Muslim majority in the territory. At the time of partition, there were about one hundred and forty autonomous states that were given the right to decide, based on the consent of the residents and keeping in account the geographical limitations, either to choose one of the two newly formed states or to be purely sovereign and independent states. However, these rights were never practiced; the smaller and vulnerable states, even those with a Muslim majority, were forcibly merged with India. Kashmir and Hyderabad Deccan were the only two large and determined states which decided to stay independent. Whereas, the Muslim population of Kashmir wanted their land to be a part of the newly formed Pakistan. Despite the choice of Hyderabad Deccan and Kashmir, India has not only taken over Hyderabad Deccan but has also seized the Kashmir region too. The article shed light on the causes and the consequences of the downfall of Hyderabad Deccan. Similarly, it also argues that if the inclusion of Hyderabad Deccan as a part of India was justified on the basis of geographical proximity and the consent of the majority of population, how can the claim of Pakistan over Kashmir being rightfully in its territory be negated.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT: First four sikhs out of ten named Guru Nanak, Guru Angad, Amar Das and Ram Das were separated from country Politics. Due to which gurus had good relations with Babar, Humayun and Akbar. From fifth Guru Arjun, the designation of guru converted on hereditary basis in the era of Jahangir and they were declared true King similar to the Mughal King. The three incidents, the murder of Guru Arjun, Guru Tegh Bahadur and the murder of two sons of the last guru (Guru Gobind), were basis of Sikh Muslim Historical Conflict. This study throw light on the historical events of Sikh Muslim conflict in sub-continent.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT: The objective of this research paper is to introduce Dar-ul-Islam Pathankot and its impacts on the society in the subcontinent. Dar-ul-Islam Pathankot was established as per advice of Allama Dr. Muhammad Iqbal, thorough dedication of Ch. Niaz Ali and hard work of Syed Abul A'la Maodudi in 1938 at Jamalpur in District Gurdaspur, Punjab. As this study is a historical and documentary research, so different books, magazines, periodicals, manuscripts, newspapers, speeches, reports, websites were used to collect information on the subject. Individual interviews were also conducted for this purpose. It is concluded that the educational plan of Dar-ul-Islam was undoubtedly great. Initial steps were taken and a school of basic education was also established according to the plan. It could be say that training work had been started in Dar-ul-Islam but the partition of India did not allow to begin academic activities there. It was such a movement that based on pure Islamic principles as far as its aims, objectives, curriculum, organization and teaching methodology was concerned.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT: Undoubtedly media is one of the most important pillars of any thriving country. A number of significant events have brought the Arab World into limelight during the last 15 years, ranging from the attack on Afghanistan in 2001 to Iraq War and the recent Arab Spring. For stories emanating from the Arab nations, western news agencies still remain the prime source of information for Urdu TV channels and newspapers. As a result, we see a lot of spelling and pronunciation mistakes when a script is transliterated and names and places from the Arab countries are mentioned. Contrary to English, Urdu is a language with almost similar Arabic alphabets that reduces the possibility of such errors. This article reviews some commonly used names, cities and countries of the Arab world taken from domestic and international Urdu news media, including renowned newspapers, news channels and news agencies. Last but not the least, the article gives some pertinent suggestions on cutting down the wrong use of words and their spellings so common in Urdu media these days. Media is entrusted with providing latest news and updates along with correct names and spellings of people and places.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT: Freedom of expression is the fundamental right of human being. It is also admitted by the International Human Rights Commission. The constitutions of almost all countries favor this right openly whether it is enforced practically or not. Islam is the only religion that has not only admitted the right of freedom of expression but it has also given its followers the guidelines to exercise this right within the given codes and ethics. Similarly, Islam asks its followers to play their role in propagation of the truth everywhere. Even to say truth in front of the tyrant is considered as Jiha'ad (the Holy War). The pages of history are replete with such examples that the Muslims have sacrificed their lives and property for the sake of truth and righteousness.The era of the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) and Khulafa-e-Rashidin (R.A) was an exemplary period for the freedom of expression. During that time, even a common man could speak, whatever he had in his mind, before the Caliph. The Caliph of the time was accountable for all his actions before a common man. That enlightened period of freedom of expression has alot to learn for democratic institutions, media and the next generation.

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June 1st, 2015

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ABSTRACT: This paper is a critical review of the belief of Ahmadies (Qadyani) that Prophet Essa (Peace be upon him) is dead. Ahmadies say that their belief is true in the light of the Holy Quran. However, this belief is contradictory to what have been said in the Holy Quran, sayings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and the view of a great majority of Muslim scholars.

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June 1st, 2015

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