The history of civilization, trend and tradition of Sindh spread over thousand of years, the people belonging to different caste, creed, culture and civilizations kept on coming here in Sindh in different periods. A few of them settled here permanently and the rest went back to their countries after considerable stay in Sindh. But the most striking elements of those, to have great consideration, was their cultural, traditional and religious impact that they had left on civilization and culture of Sindh.
We find apparent impact of old civilization on Muslim Society of Sindh. For example, traditions of marriage as selection of bride, engagement, WANNAH (keeping bride restricted to a room for a certain period before nuptial knot), LANOON (Head on collision to wrap around the head of groom an embroidered rope), MOORO (money as a gift to bride and groom to bride's family) and many traditions based on superstitions.
However, here are so many traditions based on Shariah, but are entertained in wrong direction, which is liable to be reset. The impact of culture is strong and visible on Muslims of Sindh, the attitude, life style, business and social conducts have lose similarity. The most of similarity in traditions of Hindus and Muslims are their unchanged style of living, language and participation of both groups in their different cultural and religious traditions.
Therefore, it is the need of hour to finish all un Islamic traditions and practices and set the system according to the instruction of Islam.
"Kai Chand They Sar-e-Aasman" by Shamsur Rahman Faruqi remains a trend setter and has acheved privilege of a milestone in modern Urdu fiction. The esteemed writer has presented contemporary history, decline of Indo-Islamic civilization and culture in the backdrop of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The novel itself serves as a panorama of a civilization, a kaleidoscope through which we see moving pictures of eighteenth and nineteenth centuries' pageants, manners, ways of life, language and culture, as well as undercurrents of politics of Mughals' dying days. The writer, in this article, has made an attempt to project Indo-Islamic civilization as elaborated in the novel at an optimum level by Shams-ur-Rahman Faruqi in the research mode.
Travelogues of a Muslim Country, Turkey, in Urdu Literature in the Cultural and Civilizational Perspective
Travelogues in urdu were written as early as in the 19th century.The travel account of Yousaf Khan Kambalposh, ''Tareekh-e-Yousafi", is known as the first travelogue in Urdu. The Travelogues have become a popular prose literature in urdu now and hundreds of travel accounts have been published till today.
In this article it is been attempted to highlight the travelogues of Turkey in the perspective of culture and civilization. Actually, when the Ottoman Caliphate was destroyed, Kamal Atta Turk declared the country a secular state. All the religious titles were abolished and the European culture and cilization was promoted under the Kamalism, while the majority of poeple belonged to and practiced the traditional Islam. This conflict is being depicted in travelogues of Turkey.
It is beyond doubt that religion and human history have ever had intimate relation and according to Islamic teachings Islam was the only religion of this universe and so is forever. The whole planets revolve on the basis of its principles. The universe can not deviate from the principles of Islam just for a while. The common perception of religion (MAZHAB) encompasses some beliefs, ethics and some code of worship but on the contrary Quran uses a comprehensive term of "DIIN" instead of "MAZHAB" (religion).According to this concept Islam is a complete, universal and comprehensive code of life leading to a balanced way of living and no aspect of life escapes from it.
On the other hand it is also a fact that the anthropologists have not only sought the phases of human history but also found the traces of ancient civilizations even today people along with their national identity exhibit their cultural affiliation. It is a glaring example that there are by far differences between the life style of people living in desert and snow laden regions, the differences obviously appear in term of norms, values, customs and social habits so a key question arises here that what are the relation and scope between religion and civilizations. This article attempts to find out the answer in this regard.