"Kai Chand They Sar-e-Aasman" by Shamsur Rahman Faruqi remains a trend setter and has acheved privilege of a milestone in modern Urdu fiction. The esteemed writer has presented contemporary history, decline of Indo-Islamic civilization and culture in the backdrop of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The novel itself serves as a panorama of a civilization, a kaleidoscope through which we see moving pictures of eighteenth and nineteenth centuries' pageants, manners, ways of life, language and culture, as well as undercurrents of politics of Mughals' dying days. The writer, in this article, has made an attempt to project Indo-Islamic civilization as elaborated in the novel at an optimum level by Shams-ur-Rahman Faruqi in the research mode.
Travelogues of a Muslim Country, Turkey, in Urdu Literature in the Cultural and Civilizational Perspective
Travelogues in urdu were written as early as in the 19th century.The travel account of Yousaf Khan Kambalposh, ''Tareekh-e-Yousafi", is known as the first travelogue in Urdu. The Travelogues have become a popular prose literature in urdu now and hundreds of travel accounts have been published till today.
In this article it is been attempted to highlight the travelogues of Turkey in the perspective of culture and civilization. Actually, when the Ottoman Caliphate was destroyed, Kamal Atta Turk declared the country a secular state. All the religious titles were abolished and the European culture and cilization was promoted under the Kamalism, while the majority of poeple belonged to and practiced the traditional Islam. This conflict is being depicted in travelogues of Turkey.
It is beyond doubt that religion and human history have ever had intimate relation and according to Islamic teachings Islam was the only religion of this universe and so is forever. The whole planets revolve on the basis of its principles. The universe can not deviate from the principles of Islam just for a while. The common perception of religion (MAZHAB) encompasses some beliefs, ethics and some code of worship but on the contrary Quran uses a comprehensive term of "DIIN" instead of "MAZHAB" (religion).According to this concept Islam is a complete, universal and comprehensive code of life leading to a balanced way of living and no aspect of life escapes from it.
On the other hand it is also a fact that the anthropologists have not only sought the phases of human history but also found the traces of ancient civilizations even today people along with their national identity exhibit their cultural affiliation. It is a glaring example that there are by far differences between the life style of people living in desert and snow laden regions, the differences obviously appear in term of norms, values, customs and social habits so a key question arises here that what are the relation and scope between religion and civilizations. This article attempts to find out the answer in this regard.