What is Modernity? What is the relationship of religion with modernity? All versions of modern Islam are understandable only in the context of their confrontation with Western European culture as the masters and purveyors of the modern technological-scientific age. This confrontation has both political/economic and cultural/civilizational aspects. Non-European peoples have responded to the European challenge through defense, imitation, or integration of the new culture into their own heritage. While human history has always been in a state of flux, the modern period is unique both because of the unprecedented speed of historical change and because of the hitherto untried direction in which it seems to be moving. For the first time during recorded history, religion is facing a real threat of extinction; the kind of change that history is demanding from religion is such that religion would lose its essence, its eternal element, if it were to give in to its demand. Refusing to change is not an option either. This, in turn, is the question of modernity. How religion has to negotiate with the rising tide of unprecedented changes which arose with the advent of modernity. The present paper try to give a brief overview of the genealogy of modernity.
It is beyond doubt that religion and human history have ever had intimate relation and according to Islamic teachings Islam was the only religion of this universe and so is forever. The whole planets revolve on the basis of its principles. The universe can not deviate from the principles of Islam just for a while. The common perception of religion (MAZHAB) encompasses some beliefs, ethics and some code of worship but on the contrary Quran uses a comprehensive term of "DIIN" instead of "MAZHAB" (religion).According to this concept Islam is a complete, universal and comprehensive code of life leading to a balanced way of living and no aspect of life escapes from it.
On the other hand it is also a fact that the anthropologists have not only sought the phases of human history but also found the traces of ancient civilizations even today people along with their national identity exhibit their cultural affiliation. It is a glaring example that there are by far differences between the life style of people living in desert and snow laden regions, the differences obviously appear in term of norms, values, customs and social habits so a key question arises here that what are the relation and scope between religion and civilizations. This article attempts to find out the answer in this regard.