Since the creation of the Jewish state, the relations between Iran and Israel have undergone various stages, including covert relations. The fact is that for nearly thirty years, from 1948 until 1979, both states cooperated in certain areas such as trade and intelligence. Even after the Islamic revolution of 1979 both states covertly made arms agreement for a joint cause.But soon after the Iran-Iraq war relations between these states seriously deteriorated. This paper outlines the reasons which played an important part in development and extermination of relations between the two regional players. The history of Iranian-Israeli relations since 1948 and the regional and international changes that occurred had far reaching consequences for both countries. The paper will focus on this analysis as well.
Since independence Central Asian states have acquired the attention of regional and global powers. Geographically, this region is landlocked but very rich in natural resources. Pakistan, on the other hand, lacks energy resources and therefore has remained willing to obtain benefits from these states. Importantly, Pakistan and Central Asian states have common history, religion and culture. From geostrategic point of view, Pakistan provides these regional states the shortest route to global sea trade. They have signed several agreements, treaties and memorandum of understandings (MoUs), but due to political instability and fragile security situation of Afghanistan and lack of attention from the side of policy makers in Pakistan, these agreements have been ineffective so far. This study is an attempt to identify the fluctuating relationships between Pakistan and Central Asian states. Moreover, it focuses on Pakistan’s interests in Central Asian states and its strategic importance. The purpose of this study is to identify the obstacles and opportunities in relations between Pakistan and the Central Asian states.